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数控加工中心的近代工业文明发展史

日期:2017-08-10 作(zuo)者(zhe): 人气:1540

数(shu)控加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)是(shi)当(dang)前机(ji)械加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)领域中应用(yong)最为(wei)(wei)广泛的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)类(lei)机(ji)械,在将时(shi)间推移到上(shang)世纪初,当(dang)时(shi)虽然(ran)也(ye)有类(lei)似加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)类(lei)的(de)(de)机(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)产品,但(dan)都相当(dang)的(de)(de)原(yuan)始,更谈不上(shang)采用(yong)当(dang)今数(shu)控形式的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)来进行运(yun)作(zuo)了,回顾百(bai)年我们不难发现,如(ru)今的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)产品,其实在很多(duo)的(de)(de)原(yuan)理和加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺方面还是(shi)和加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)原(yuan)始加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)艺有着异曲同(tong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)之(zhi)妙(miao),如(ru)今更多(duo)的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业行业专(zhuan)家更多(duo)的(de)(de)会将数(shu)控加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)专(zhuan)业的(de)(de)称为(wei)(wei)CNC加(jia)(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中心(xin)(xin)(xin)。

 

回顾历史我(wo)(wo)们可(ke)以知(zhi)道,世界上第(di)一台正式(shi)的(de)数控(kong)车床(chuang)诞生(sheng)于(yu)上世纪的(de)50年(nian)代左(zuo)右(you),当时(shi)美国帕森斯(si)公司接受美国空军委托制(zhi)造(zao)飞机(ji)的(de)螺旋桨(jiang)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)设备,因为精度要求较高,必(bi)须有计算机(ji)来(lai)进(jin)行数控(kong)这时(shi)候该公司在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)美国麻(ma)省理工(gong)学院(MIT)伺服机(ji)构研(yan)究室(shi)的(de)协(xie)助下才(cai)开始了数控(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)应用,在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)1952年(nian)试(shi)制(zhi)成功的(de)数控(kong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)机(ji)械(xie)发(fa)明了,在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)过了5年(nian)左(zuo)右(you)的(de)完善1957年(nian)这种加(jia)(jia)工(gong)设备被正式(shi)投(tou)入(ru)使(shi)用,这也(ye)是现(xian)代加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中心的(de)基本雏形,当时(shi)我(wo)(wo)国国内也(ye)是工(gong)业发(fa)展的(de)兴起时(shi)代在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)1958年(nian)左(zuo)右(you)我(wo)(wo)国也(ye)对数控(kong)机(ji)床(chuang)的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)设备进(jin)行研(yan)制(zhi)开发(fa),此后在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)随着(zhe)20世纪中后期(qi)电子(zi)技(ji)术的(de)高速发(fa)展数字化信号控(kong)制(zhi)机(ji)床(chuang)运动的(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)控(kong)制(zhi)方(fang)式(shi)变(bian)的(de)越(yue)来(lai)越(yue)成熟(shu),在(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)此以后,从(cong)1960年(nian)开始,其他一些工(gong)业国家,如(ru)德(de)国、日本都陆续开发(fa)、生(sheng)产及使(shi)用了数控(kong)机(ji)床(chuang)。

 

在(zai)(zai)时间到了(le)(le)1960年左右很多机(ji)(ji)械工(gong)(gong)业(ye)生(sheng)产大国开(kai)始(shi)(shi)批量的(de)(de)(de)(de)生(sheng)产配有晶(jing)体管数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)三坐(zuo)标数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)铣床(chuang),到了(le)(le)1965年以后,点位(wei)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)设备得到了(le)(le)迅速(su)发(fa)展(zhan),同时也迅速(su)的(de)(de)(de)(de)推动(dong)了(le)(le)坐(zuo)标镗床(chuang)、数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)铣床(chuang)、冲床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)大量发(fa)展(zhan),随着数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展(zhan)不断深(shen)入数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心也开(kai)始(shi)(shi)逐(zhu)渐开(kai)始(shi)(shi)成(cheng)熟,在(zai)(zai)后来(lai)一(yi)种具有自动(dong)换刀(dao)装(zhuang)置的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang),它能(neng)实现(xian)(xian)工(gong)(gong)件一(yi)次装(zhuang)卡而(er)进行多工(gong)(gong)序的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)并且可以缩短机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上零(ling)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)装(zhuang)卸时间和更(geng)换刀(dao)具的(de)(de)(de)(de)时间,这就是(shi)现(xian)(xian)在(zai)(zai)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)(de)基(ji)本(ben)形(xing)状,在(zai)(zai)到了(le)(le)上世纪60年代的(de)(de)(de)(de)后期英国的(de)(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)制造业(ye)界把几台数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)连接成(cheng)具有柔性的(de)(de)(de)(de)加(jia)工(gong)(gong)系(xi)统,而(er)微处理器直接用(yong)于数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang),使数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)软件功能(neng)加(jia)强。

 

在到了80年代左右,西方(fang)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业机械(xie)较为(wei)(wei)发达(da)的(de)(de)国家开始(shi)出现(xian)了1~4台加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)或车削(xue)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)为(wei)(wei)主体的(de)(de)机床加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin),从(cong)此数(shu)控(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)慢慢的(de)(de)开始(shi)从(cong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)小批(pi)量加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)向大批(pi)量加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发展,到了目前为(wei)(wei)止(zhi)数(shu)控(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)已经成为(wei)(wei)数(shu)控(kong)机床中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)一种非常重要的(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)机种。纵观未(wei)来,随着电(dian)子计算机的(de)(de)发展以(yi)及微电(dian)子技术在工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)业中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)的(de)(de)应用(yong)成熟(shu)度,数(shu)控(kong)机床的(de)(de)自动化程度也更为(wei)(wei)提高,一些新兴(xing)的(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)方(fang)式(shi)例如(ru)多工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序集中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)以(yi)及激光加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)等都开始(shi)融入(ru)了数(shu)控(kong)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)的(de)(de)机械(xie)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)领域,从(cong)而形成了更为(wei)(wei)综(zong)合的(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)单(dan)元(yuan)体,加工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)序更为(wei)(wei)可靠更有效(xiao)率,稳定性则(ze)变的(de)(de)更强。


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