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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者(zhe): 人气:1899

高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心是一种(zhong)可(ke)以对(dui)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件进(jin)(jin)行(xing)高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)一种(zhong)工(gong)(gong)(gong)具能(neng)够如此快(kuai)速(su)(su)的(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)行(xing)工(gong)(gong)(gong)件的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)除了因为高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)精密度(du)(du)(du)和成熟的(de)(de)技术之外更(geng)多的(de)(de)还是得利(li)与(yu)其优秀(xiu)的(de)(de)数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统,在当前的(de)(de)机(ji)床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)行(xing)业中(zhong)为视线高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)稳(wen)定(ding)的(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)(gao)精度(du)(du)(du)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)运行(xing)快(kuai)速(su)(su)且功(gong)能(neng)强大(da)的(de)(de)计算机(ji)数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统是必(bi)不(bu)可(ke)少(shao),需要注意的(de)(de)是高(gao)(gao)(gao)速(su)(su)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心的(de)(de)数(shu)控系(xi)(xi)统必(bi)须能(neng)够足够快(kuai)地处理数(shu)控程(cheng)序代(dai)码段以保(bao)持(chi)程(cheng)序中(zhong)规定(ding)的(de)(de)进(jin)(jin)给(ji)速(su)(su)度(du)(du)(du)。

 

高速加工(gong)中心在实(shi)(shi)际运行中是计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)用(yong)于测量一次工(gong)作台的(de)实(shi)(shi)际位置并(bing)发出(chu)一次进给命令(ling)所用(yong)的(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian),对(dui)于伺服周期(qi)和(he)代码(ma)段(duan)处理(li)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)是计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)两个重要参数(shu)及其概(gai)念。计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)处理(li)并(bing)完成(cheng)一条加工(gong)指令(ling)代码(ma)段(duan)规定(ding)(ding)的(de)位移所花费(fei)的(de)时(shi)(shi)间(jian)(jian)。 计算机(ji)数(shu)控(kong)系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)这(zhei)两个参数(shu)对(dui)于高速加工(gong)中心来说非(fei)常重要,因为他(ta)们(men)将决定(ding)(ding)机(ji)床的(de)加工(gong)速度(du)(du)和(he)加工(gong)精(jing)度(du)(du)。在这(zhei)里(li),精(jing)度(du)(du)意味(wei)着在采用(yong)线(xian)性插补时(shi)(shi),用(yong)直(zhi)线(xian)段(duan)来逼(bi)近零(ling)件轮(lun)廊所允许的(de)最(zui)大误差。

 

我们可以(yi)看(kan)到在高(gao)(gao)速(su)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)必须保证(zheng)形(xing)成精(jing)确(que)的(de)(de)(de)(de)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨迹,另外,在用直(zhi)线(xian)(xian)段(duan)来逼近零件(jian)轮廊时,为(wei)(wei)了(le)保证(zheng)精(jing)度,直(zhi)线(xian)(xian)段(duan)势必很(hen)(hen)短,从而使(shi)得零件(jian)程序变得很(hen)(hen)长。基于此,计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)需要(yao)一个32位的(de)(de)(de)(de)微处理器(qi),有(you)(you)时甚(shen)至需要(yao)多(duo)个微处理器(qi),以(yi)完成高(gao)(gao)速(su)插补、高(gao)(gao)速(su)段(duan)处理和良(liang)好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)待加工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为(wei)(wei)了(le)能(neng)预(yu)先知道刀具(ju)路径(jing)(jing)以(yi)避免在拐(guai)角 处出(chu)现事故,计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)最好(hao)是(shi)具(ju)有(you)(you)较多(duo)段(duan)加工(gong)(gong)(gong) NC代(dai)码(ma)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,这(zhei)与司(si)机(ji)必须有(you)(you)良(liang)好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)视野 范围才能(neng)高(gao)(gao)速(su)驾驶一辆汽车有(you)(you)些类似(si)。 目(mu)前所有(you)(you)较高(gao)(gao)水平的(de)(de)(de)(de)计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)都具(ju)有(you)(you)待加工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong)能(neng)力。所谓待加工(gong)(gong)(gong)轨迹监控(kong)(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)在控(kong)(kong)(kong)制(zhi)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)同时扫描待加工(gong)(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)代(dai)码(ma),看(kan)刀具(ju)路径(jing)(jing)是(shi)否有(you)(you)方(fang)(fang)向(xiang)上的(de)(de)(de)(de)突然改变,如果计算机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)(tong)(tong)发现前面必须改变进(jin)给方(fang)(fang)向(xiang)时,自动执行加减速(su)程序,以(yi)避免高(gao)(gao)速(su)加工(gong)(gong)(gong)中心偏离程序中规定的(de)(de)(de)(de)切削加工(gong)(gong)(gong)路径(jing)(jing)。


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